Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, India
Received Date: July 20, 2020; Accepted Date: July 26, 2020; Published Date: July 31, 2020
Citation: Sindhu Sri M (2020) Editorial Note on Pulmonary Fibrosis. Arch Med Vol. 12 Iss.4: e105 DOI: 10.36648/1989-5216.12.4.e-105
Copyright: © 2020 Sindhu Sri M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Pulmonary Fibrosis (PF) is a lung disease that happens when lung tissue gets harmed and scarred. Pulmonary meaning lung, and fibrosis significance scar tissue. In the medical terminology used to depict this scar tissue is fibrosis. The alveoli and the veins inside the lungs are responsible for conveying oxygen to the body, including the brain, heart, and different organs. The PF group of lung diseases falls into a considerably large gathering of ailments called the interstitial lung infections. At the point when an interstitial lung ailment incorporates scar tissue in the lung, we call it pulmonary fibrosis. Fundamental cause in PF include immune system issues, Drug-induces, viral diseases and bacterial contamination like tuberculosis which may cause fibrotic changes in both lung's upper or lower flaps and other microscopic wounds to the lung. In most cases pulmonary-fibrosis is hereditary.
Signs and Symptoms include :
• Shortness of breath
• a dry cough
• Fatigue and weakness
• unexplained weight loss
• Clubbing in fingers and toes
• Complications may include pulmonary hypertension, respiratory failure, pneumothorax, and lung cancer.
Another form of pulmonary fibrosis is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. There are a number of known causes of pulmonary fibrosis as well as unknown causes, called idiopathic. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a rare, progressive and fatal lung disease which affects approximately 5 million persons worldwide. This is a scarring disease of the lungs of unknown cause. In this case lungs then cannot take in enough oxygen to oxygenate the blood. There are various kinds of interstitial lung diseases. More specifically, consensus treatment guidelines from international lung societies define IPF (Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis) as “a specific form of chronic, progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause, occurring primarily in older adults, limited to the lungs, and associated with the histopathologic and/or radiologic pattern of UIP [Usual Interstitial Pneumonia] [2,3].
Some of the different types of fibrosis include the following:
• Lung fibrosis or pulmonary fibrosis.
• Liver fibrosis.
• Heart fibrosis.
• Mediastinal fibrosis.
• Retroperitoneal cavity fibrosis
• Bone marrow fibrosis
• Skin fibrosis
• Scleroderma or systemic sclerosis
Hypoxia caused by pulmonary fibrosis can lead to pulmonary hypertension, which, in turn, can lead to heart failure of the right ventricle. Hypoxia can be prevented with oxygen supplementation. Pulmonary fibrosis may also result in an increased risk for pulmonary emboli, which can be prevented by anticoagulants.
The immune system is play a central role in the development of many forms of pulmonary fibrosis. The main objective of treatment with immune suppressive agents such as corticosteroids is to decrease lung inflammation and subsequent scarring. Reactions to treatment are variable. Those whose conditions improve with immune suppressive treatment probably do not have idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has no critical treatment or cure .
There is no cure for pulmonary fibrosis. Current treatments are aimed at slowing the course of the disease; relieving symptoms and helping you stay active and healthy. Treatments for PF include:
• Oxygen Therapy
• Pulmonary Rehabilitation
• Lung Transplant
• Clinical Trials
• Healthy Lifestyle
Due to the unknown cause of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, prevention of the respiratory disease is difficult. Still a lot of work to be never really key focuses on that may permit precaution intercessions and to create procedures as well as biomarkers to help early finding or even to suspend fibrogenesis in this staggering condition. The risk factors for severe COVID-19 are shared with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF), suggesting that this group of patients will be at increased risk of severe COVID-19.