We report a case of pneumococcal neonatal meningitis in an Italian girl, occurred 3 days after birth. CSF microscopic examination revealed the presence of Gram Positive diplococci, identified as S. pneumoniae after detection of pneumococcal capsular antigen. Tests for Group B Streptococcus on mother and child were both negative. The case was peculiar because in industrialized countries the most common agents responsible of neonatal meningitis are GBS, E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes, where pneumococcal meningitis in the neonatal period is quite uncommon: It is then necessary to consider that, in any case of early onset neonatal meningitis, S. pneumoniae is a possible yet uncommon causative agent, and that the microbiological profile of early onset neonatal meningitis in industrialized countries might change substantially because of migratory streams and the subsequent diffusion of emerging microorganisms, which are unusual at the present time.
Mirri G, Borrominia A, Martinelli N, Maggiore F, Casero D, Veronelli E and Agosti M
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